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Incentives to investment

Abundant Resources: Nigeria has enormous resources, most of which are yet to be fully exploited. They include mineral, agricultural and human resources.

Large Market: Nigeria offers the market in sub-Saharan Africa, with a population of about 120 million people. The Nigerian market potential also stretches into the growing West African sub-region.

Political Stability: Nigeria offers stable political environment.

Free Market Economy: The Government has created a favorable climate for business and industrial ventures. Administrative and bureaucratic procedures have been greatly streamlined. The Government has put in place policies and programmes that guarantee a free market economy.

Robust Private Sector: The country has a dynamic private sector, which has assured greater responsibilities under the new economic environment.

Free Flow of Investment: Exchange control regulations have been liberalized to ensure free flow of international finance. There is now unrestricted movement of investment capital.

Attractive Incentives: A comprehensive package of incentives has been put in place to attract investment.

Fast Growing Financial Sector: There is well-developed banking and financial sector. The investor has easy access to working capital and other credit facilities.

Skilled and Low Cost Labour: There is an abundance of skilled labour at an economic cost, resulting in production costs, which are among the lowest in Africa.

Infrastructure: Rapid development of physical and industrial infrastructure, in terms of transportation, communications, electricity and water supply.

Nigeria is Africa’s foremost business destination second only to South Africa. Its currency is the Naira. $1.00USD is approximately N156. The country operates a market economy dominated by crude oil exports with the revenue earnings from the sector accounting for 90% of forex earnings and 65% of budgetary revenues. Other exports are cocoa, palm oil, groundnuts, cotton, timber and rubber.

Nigeria’s imports are in the region of $14.54billion USD. Import commodities include machinery, chemicals, transport, equipment, manufactured goods and live animals.

In recent times, focus is being directed at non oil exports and agriculture, which presently accounts for 30% of the GDP, to diversify the economic base. Opportunities exist for the exploitation and export of natural gas, bitumen, limestone, coal, tin, columbite, gold, silver, lead-zinc, gypsum, glass sands, clays, asbestos, graphite, and iron ore, among others.

The Government has been pursuing economic reforms marked by the privatization and deregulation which seek to transfer state ownership of institutions to the private sector and so engender efficiency n the productive sectors of the economy .These are well articulated in The NEEDS programme. The reforms have led to an explosive growth in the telecoms sector after years of stagnation. The GSM has transformed the economic terrain creating employment and oiling the operations of businesses in Nigeria. The country is traversed by a network of primary and secondary roads, and has 4 international airports, and 6 seaports. It also boasts 12 Television stations and 25 National newspapers. Its internet country code is .ng Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa and the most populous country on the African continent. Nigeria shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, Niger in the north, and borders the Gulf of Guinea in the south. Since 1991, its capital has been the centrally located city of Abuja; previously, the Nigerian government was headquartered in Lagos.

The people of Nigeria have an extensive history, and based on archaeological evidence, human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BC. The Benue Cross River area is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BC and the 2nd millennium AD. However, the Nigerian state came into being on October 1, 1960 when Nigeria declared its independence from the British and at present consists of 36 states and the federal capital territory. Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 after a sixteen year interruption by a series of military rulers. From 1966 until 1999, Nigeria had been ruled (except the short lived second republic, 1979 1983) by military rulers who seized power in coup d’états and counter coups. Today Nigeria is a democratic country with tremendous market and investment opportunities.

Geography: Nigeria Lies within three climatic and geographic types equatorial in the southern reaches, tropical in the central area and arid in the north fringe giving rise to rainforest, savannah and desert vegetation respectively. Nigeria is bisected by rivers Niger and Benue which merge at Lokoja, then cascade southwards to form the tributaries and creeks of the Niger Delta.


Investment Incentives

Investment Incentives

The Nigerian Government has put in place a number of investment incentives for the stimulation of private sector investment from within and outside the country. While some of these incentives cover all sectors, other are limited to some specific sectors. The nature and application of these incentives have been considerably simplified. The incentives include:


The Companies Income Tax Act has been amended in order to encourage potential and existing investors and entrepreneurs. The current rate in all sectors, except for petroleum, is 30 percent.


The grant of Pioneer Status to an industry is aimed at enabling the industry concerned to make a reasonable level of profit within its formative years. The profit so made is expected to be ploughed back into the business.

Pioneer status is a tax holiday granted to qualified or (eligible) industries anywhere in the Federation and five-year tax holiday in respect of industries located in economically disadvantaged local government area of the Federation. At the moment, there is a list of 71 approved industries declared pioneer industries, which can benefit from tax holiday.

To qualify, a joint venture company or a wholly foreign-owned company must have a minimum share capital of N10milion and incurred a capital expenditure of not less than five million Naira whilst that of qualified indigenous company should not be less than N150,000.00. In addition, an application in respect of Pioneer Status must be submitted within one year the applicant company starts commercial production otherwise the application will be time-barred.



1 Cultivation, Processing and Preservation of food crops and fruits Preserved canned foodstuff and fruits, tea, coffee, refined sugar, tomato puree/juice etc.

2 Integrated dairy production Butter, cheese, fluid milk and powder, ice cream (by products, livestock, minor edible products).


  1. a) Deep sea trawling and processing) Coastal fishing and shrimping

Preserved sea foods, fish and shrimps, fishmeal

4 Mining lead, zinc, and iron and steel from iron ore Iron and steel products

5 Manufacture of iron and steel from Iron ore Iron and steel products

6 The smelting and refining of non-ferrous base metal and the manufacture of their alloys Refined non-ferrous base metal and their alloys

7 Mining and processing of barytes, bentonites and associated minerals Barytes, bentonites and associated minerals

8 Manufacture of oil well drilling materials containing a predominant proportion of Nigerian raw materials Barytes, bentonites and associated minerals

9 The manufacture of cement Cement, clinker

10 Manufacture of glass and glassware Sheet glass, pharmaceuticals and laboratory glassware

11 Manufacture of lime from local limestone Lime

12 Quarrying and processing of marbles Marbles and processed marbles

13 Manufacture of ceramic products Refractory and heat insulating constructional products, laboratory ware

14 Manufacture of basic and intermediate

  1. i) Basic and intermediate organic chemical; ii) Basic and intermediate in-organic chemicals; iii) Fertilizers; iv) Petro-chemical; v) Caustic soda and chlorine vi) Pesticide and insecticide

15 Formulation and manufacture of pharmaceuticals Pharmaceuticals, health vitamins

16 Manufacture of yeast, alcohol and related products Yeast, industrial alcohol and related products

17 Manufacture of paper pulp Paper pulp

18 Manufacture of yarn and man-made fibres Yarn and synthetic fibres

19 Manufacture of machinery involving the local manufacture of substantial proportion of components thereof Office and industrial machinery, equipment and apparatus (whether or not electrical)

20 Manufacture of products made wholly or mainly of mental Pipes and tubes structure metal products

21 Manufacture of nets from local raw materials Fishing nets, mosquito nets and related products

22 Manufacture of gas cylinders Gas cylinders

23 The processing of local wheat flour materials Flour and Offal

24 Rubber plantation and processing Rubber

25 Gum/Arabic plantation and processing Gum Arabic

26 Manufacture of fertilizers Ammonia, Urea Superphosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers

27 Vehicle Manufacture Motor Vehicles and Motor-cycles, Tri-cycles and Automotive components

28 Oil palm plantation and processing Palm Oil, palm kennel and Offal’s

29 Manufacture of automotive and other components Automotive and other components.

30 Book printing Books

31 Large Scale Mechanized Farming Wheat, Maize, Rice and Sorghum

32 Cattle ranching and piggery of not less than 500 herds Cattle and pigs of not less than 500 herds

33 Manufacture of Gypsum Gypsum

34 Re-refining or re-cycling of waste oil Low power oil

35 Manufacture of electrical appliances/ equipment/components and parts Generators, transformers, meter, control, pressing irons, switch gears, test equipment, ballets/ starters/ lighters, discreet components, resistor/capacitors/coils/semi-conductors/ conductors

36 Ship building, repairs and maintenance of ocean going vessels Ships, boats and barges.

37 Manufacture of computer and computer chips Computer hard and soft ware chips

38 Manufacture of cameras, photographic equipment and other materials Cameras, photographic equipment or any component thereof

39 Diving and underwater engineers Underwater engineering services.

40 Local fabrications of machinery, equipment Machinery

41 Manufacture of tools Machines and hand tools

42 Installation of facilities for aircraft manufacture and maintenance of aircraft Aircraft maintenance and manufacture

43 Installation of scientific instruments and communication equipment Scientific instruments, radio, audio play-back/recorders, loudspeaker units, amplifying systems, microphones, video playbacks/ recorders, PBX, telephone handset, tele-printers, trans-receivers, autophones/aerials.

45 Manufacture of gas and distribution Gas and gas distribution

46 Manufacture of Solar energy powered equipment and gadgets Solar panels, refrigerators, water pumps, calculators, etc

Fish and shrimps

47 Large-scale inland fishing farms Fish and shrimps

48 Bitumen mining and processing Bitumen

49 Salt production Salt

50 Manufacture of firefighting equipment and detection systems Firefighting equipment and detection systems

51 Manufacture of cables Electrical, telephone and other cables

52 Manufacture of medical equipment X-ray, oxygen equipment, etc

53 Mineral oil prospecting and production Petroleum

54 Manufacture of lubricants Grease, hydraulic/engine oil, gear oil, etc

56 Manufacture of flat sheets Flat sheets

57 Manufacture of oven, cookers, cold rooms, refrigerators, fridges, freezers, air conditioner Oven, cookers, cold rooms, refrigerators, fridges, freezers, air conditioner

58 Manufacture of agricultural machinery and equipment Ploughs, harvesters, threshers, planters etc

59 Manufacture of materials handling and equipment Cranes, forklifts etc

60 Establishment of foundries Moulds, casting, etc

61 Manufacture of alum Alum

62 Manufacture of enzymes Enzymes

63 Manufacture of concentrates Food/fruits concentrates

64 Manufacture of welding electrodes Welding electrodes

65 Manufacture of nails Nails, related items

66 Manufacture of iron rods Rods from billets

67 Manufacture of hops Brewing hops

68 Information and communication technology (ICT) Manufacture/production of ICT equipment, hardware and software

69 Tourism Development of holiday resorts, hotels, sporting and recreational facilities

70 Real Estate Development - Rental income from residential and commercial premises;- Capital gains from any real estate disposed of within a specified period

71 Utility services - Independent power generation utilizing gas, coal and renewable energy sources;- All aspects of transportation such as rail, road and waterways- Indigenous telecommunications companies other than GSM operations


Industrial establishments are expected to engage in Research and Development (R&D) for the improvement of their processes and products. Up to 120 percent of expenses on (R&D) are tax deductible, provided that such R&D activities are carried out in Nigeria and are connected with the business from which income or profits is derived. Also, for the purpose of R&D on Local raw materials, 140 percent of expenses are allowed. Where the research is long-term, it will be regarded as a capital expenditure and will be written off against profit. The result of such research could be patented and protected in accordance with internationally accepted Industrial Property Rights.


The current rates applicable in respect of capital allowances are:

S/N Qualifying Expenditure in Respect of:- Initial Allowance (%) Annual Allowance (%)

1 Building Expenditure 5 10 per Annum

2 Industrial Building Expenditure 15 10

3 Mining 20 0

4 Plant excluding furniture and fittings 20 10

5 Furniture and Fittings 15 10

6 Motor Vehicle Expenditure 25 20

7 Plantation equipment expenditure 20 33

8 Housing Estate Expenditure 20 10

9 Ranching and Plantation Expenditure 25 15

10 Research and Development Expenditure 25 12

11 Public Transportation Motor Vehicle 30 -

The amount of capital allowance to be enjoyed in any year of assessment is restricted in Nigeria to 75% of assessable profit in case of manufacturing companies and 66% in case of others, except such companies in agro-allied industries that are not affected by this restriction. If leased assets are used in agro-allied ventures, the full (100%) capital allowance claimed will be granted. Moreover, where the leased assets are agricultural plants and equipment, there will be an additional investment allowance of 10% on such expenditure.


This is applicable to industrial establishments that have set up in – plant training facilities. Such industries enjoy a two percent tax concession for a period of five years.


This is a form of incentive granted to industries that provide facilities that ordinarily, should have been provided by government. Such facilities include access roads, pipe borne water and electricity. Twenty percent (20%) of the cost of providing these infrastructural facilities, where they do not exist, is tax deductible.


Without prejudice to the provision of the pioneer status enabling law, a pioneer industry sited in economically disadvantaged Local Government Area is entitled to 100% tax holiday for seven years and an additional 5% capital depreciation allowance over and above the initial capital depreciation allowance.


Industries with high labour/capital ratio are entitled to tax concessions. These are industries with plants, equipment and machinery, which essentially are operated with minimal automation. Where there is automation, such automation should not be more than one process in the course of production. The rate is graduated in such a way that an industry employing 1,000 persons or more will enjoy 15 percent tax concession, while an industry employing 200 will enjoy 7 percent and those employing 100 will enjoy 6 percent and so on.


10% tax concession for five (5) years. This applies essentially to engineering industries, where some finished imported products serves as inputs. The concession is aimed at encouraging local fabrication rather than the mere assembly of completely knocked down parts.


This incentive is granted to companies engaged in manufacturing which incur qualifying capital expenditure for the purposes of approved expansion, etc. the incentive is in the form of a generalized allowance of capital expenditure incurred by companies for the following:-

  • Expansion of production capacity
  • Modernization of production facilities
  • Diversification into related products


A tax credit of 20% is granted for five years to industries that attain the minimum level of local raw material sourcing and utilization. The minimum levels of local raw materials sourcing and utilization by sectors are: –

Agro-allied – 70%

Engineering – 60%

Chemicals – 60%

Petrochemicals – 70%



(a) Companies with turnover of less than N1 million are taxed at a low rate of 20% for the first five years of operation if they are in the manufacturing business.

(b) Dividend from companies in manufacturing sector with turnover of less than N1 million is tax-free for the first five years of their operation.

(c) Dividends derived from manufacturing companies in petrol chemical and liquefied natural gas sub-sector are exempted from tax.


(a) Companies in the agro-allied business do not have their capital allowance restricted. It is granted in full i.e. 100%.

(b) The payments of minimum tax by companies that make small or no profits at all do not apply to agro-allied business.

(c) Agro-allied plant and equipment enjoy enhanced capital allowances of up to 50%.

(d) Processing of agricultural produce is a pioneer industry;

consequently, there is 100% tax-free period for 5 years

or projects into processing of agricultural produce.

(e) Agricultural and Agro allied Machinery:

All agricultural and agro-industrial machines and equipment to enjoy 1% duty.

(f) Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) administered by the Central Bank of Nigeria:

Up to 75% guarantee for all loans granted by commercial banks

for agricultural production and processing.

(g) Interest Drawback Program Fund:

60% repayment of interest paid by those who borrow from banks under the ACGS, for the purpose of cassava production and processing provided such borrowers repay their loans on schedule.


The following incentives are available in the solid minerals sector:

(a) 3 to 5 years tax holiday;

(b) Low income tax of between 20% and 30%;

(c) Deferred royalty payments depending on the magnitude of the investment and the strategic nature of the project;

(d) Possible capitalization of expenditure on exploration and surveys;

(e) Extension of infrastructure such as roads and electricity to mining sites;

(f) The holder of a mining lease shall, where qualified, be entitled to:

  1. i) Depreciation or capital allowance of 75% of the certified true capital expenditure incurred in the year of investment and 50% in subsequent years
  2. ii) Investment allowance of 5%

iii) Exemption from payment of customs & import duties

  1. iv) Expatriate quota & resident permit for approved expatriate personnel

(g) In addition to roll-over relief under the capital gains tax (CGT), companies replacing their plants and machinery are to enjoy a once-and-for-all 95% capital allowance in the first year with 5% retention value until the assets is disposed, 15% will be granted for replacement of an asset.


The incentives in this sector are granted to companies that are into joint ventures with the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation and have signed Memorandum of Understanding. The incentives are:

  • Guaranteed minimum margin of USS2.50 bl;
  • Accelerated capital allowances which provides that the capital allowances can be carried forward indefinitely;
  • Graduate royalty rates approved for oil companies.

Onshore production in territorial waters and continental shelf areas beyond 100 meters.

Investment tax allowances (ITA) is granted to a company in respect of any asset for the accounting period. The ITA is graduated as follows:

On shore – 5%

Off shore in depth of up to 10m – 10%

Off shore in depth of between 100-200m – 15%

Off shore in depth of over 200m – 20%


In view of the enormous potentials in this sector, Government has approved the following fiscal incentives:


  • Applicable tax rate is the same as the company income tax which is currently at 30%
  • Capital allowance at the rate of 20% per annum in the first four years, 19% in the fifth year and the remaining 1% in the books
  • Investment tax credit at the current rate of 5%
  • Royalty at the rate of 7% on shore and 5% off shore


– Capital allowance as in production phase above

– Tax rate as in production phase

– Tax holiday under pioneer status


– Applicable tax rate under PPT is 45%

– Capital allowance is 33% per year on-straight line basis in the first three years with 1% remaining in the books

– Investment tax credit of 10%

– Royalty 7% on-shore 5% off-shore, tax deductible


Fiscal arrangements are reviewed as follows:

All investments necessary to separate oil from gas from reserves into suitable product is considered part of the oil field development.

Capital investment facilities to deliver associated gas in usable form at utilization or transfer points will be treated for fiscal purposes as part of the capital investment for oil development.

Capital allowances, operating expenses and basis for assessment will be subjected to the provisions of the PPT Act and the revised Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).


Companies engaged in gas utilization are to be subjected to the provisions of the Companies Income Tax Act (CITA);

An initial tax free period of three years renewable for an additional two years;

Accelerated capital allowances after the tax-free period in the form of 90% with 10% retention in the books;

15% investment capital allowance, which shall not reduce the value of the asset;

In 1998, the government approved additional incentives to support the gas industry in the following areas:

- All gas developmental projects, including those engaged in power generation, liquid plants, fertilizer plants, gas distribution/transmission pipelines are taxed under the provisions of Companies Income Tax (CITA) and not the Petroleum Profit Tax;

- All fiscal incentives under the gas utilization downstream operations since 1997 are to be extended to industrial projects that use gas i.e. power plants, gas to liquids plants, fertilizer plants, gas distribution/transmission plants;

- The initial tax holiday is to be extended from three years to five years;

- Gas is transferred at 0% PPT 0% Royalty;

- Investment capital allowance is increased from 5% to 15%;

- Interest on loan on gas project is to be tax deductible provided that prior approval was obtained from the Federal Ministry of Finance before taking the loan; and

- All dividends distributed during the tax holiday shall not be taxed.


Government provides non-fiscal incentives to private investors in addition to a tariff structure that ensures that investors recover their investment over a reasonable period of time, bearing in mind the need for differential tariffs between urban and rural areas. The tariff structure as approved by the regulatory authority, Nigerian Communication Commission, also provides adequate cross-subsidy between the profitable trunk and local calls of the urban and non-profitable operation of the rural areas.

Other Incentives in place are:-

  1. a) Manufacture/installation of telecommunications related equipment is considered as pioneer activity. As a result, they enjoy 3 to 5 years tax holiday.
  2. b) Taxes and duties do not exceed those charged on essential electrical goods.

(vii) ENERGY (Electricity)

Among the incentives put in place by Government to encourage investors in the sector are:

Tax holiday of 3 – 5 years is granted to companies that manufacture:

  1. a) Transformers, meters, control panels, switchgears, cable and other electrical related equipment, which are considered pioneer products/industries:
  2. b) Power plants using gas are assessed under the company income tax act at a reduced rate of 30%.


The following incentives have been put in place to encourage domestic and foreign investors’ participation in the tourism industry in Nigeria:

  1. i) The tourism sector was accorded preferred sector status in 1999. This makes the sector qualify for incentives (available to similar sectors of the economy) such as tax holiday, longer years of moratorium and import duty exemption on tourism related equipment.
  2. ii) Provision of basic infrastructure that is, road, water, electricity, communications etc to centre of attraction. Some states have specific areas as tourism development zones thereby making acquisition of land easier.

iii) Provision of land for tourism development at concessional rates.

  1. iv) Availability of soft loans with long period of moratorium.


The following incentives are in place to encourage investment in the sector:

  1. i) Shipbuilding, repairs and maintenance of vessels, boat, barges, diving and underwater engineering services, aircraft maintenance and manufacturing are considered pioneer products. As a result, they enjoy 3 -5 years tax holiday depending on location.


Export incentives are aimed at encouraging and assisting exporters to increase and diversify the total value and volume of non-oil exports from Nigeria. These incentives are designed to address the major problems of supply, demand and price competitiveness of Nigeria’s export. Some of the incentives now take the form of Negotiable Duty Credit Certificate (NDCC) and are as indicated below:

(i) Manufacture – In – Bond Scheme

The Manufacture – in – Bond Scheme is designed to encourage manufacturers to import raw material inputs and other intermediate products duty-free for the production of exportable goods, backed by a bond issued by any recognized financial institution. The bond will be discharged after evidence of exportation and repatriation of foreign exchange has been produced.

(a) Guidelines:

(i) The Manufacturer-in-Bound Scheme (MIBS) shall be applicable to export manufacturers only.

(ii) Interested manufacturers should apply to the Federal Ministry of Finance using the prescribed forms.

(iii) For a manufacturer to enjoy the scheme, the factory premises must be approved for that purpose by the Nigerian Customs service.

(iv) Approval including the Import Requirement Certificate (IRS) should be obtained within a period of two months and transmitted to the Nigerian Customs service for implementation.

(v) The Nigerian Customs Service will determine acceptability guarantee Bond issued by Commercial or Merchant Bank or NEXIM or Insurance Companies covering not less than 110 per cent customs duty payable on each consignment.

(vi) Under this scheme, manufacturers of export commodities will be entitled to import duty-free raw material inputs, CKDS and intermediate inputs whether prohibited or not for the manufacture of export commodities.

(vii) The Manufacturer-in-Bond Scheme shall operate on an annual (12 calendar months) importation basis as the exporter wishes. For prohibited items however, the scheme shall operate Import by Import basis.

(viii) The Bond, which shall be effective from the date of its issuance by the Bank shall be discharged when the condition stipulated therein have been fulfilled.

(ix) The Nigerian Customs Service will periodically monitor the utilization of raw materials imported under this scheme until the Bond is fully executed.

(x) In the event of inability of any manufacturer to fulfill the conditions stipulated in the Bond, the manufacturer to fulfill the conditions stipulated in the Bond, the manufacturer shall apply to the Nigerian Customs Service through its approved dealer Bank, for an extension of the Bond particularly when the life of the Bond has expired. The extension of the Bond shall not exceed three months.

(xi) Repatriation of the foreign exchange realized from the transaction shall be confirmed by the Central Bank of Nigeria before the Bond is discharged.

(xii) Bill of Entry marked “Manufacturer-in-Bond Scheme” shall be used for clearance of goods under the scheme.

(xiii) A Committee comprising the Ministry of Finance, representatives of the Nigerian Customs Service, Nigerian Export Promotion Council, Standard Organization of Nigeria and the Central Bank of Nigeria shall monitor the scheme. The monitoring body shall render a quarterly Report to the NMIBS Committee.

(xiv) In the event of default by the manufacturer, the Nigerian Customs Service shall redeem the Bond by calling on the guarantor to pay up the appropriate customs duties and other associated charges.

(xv) A manufacturer participating in the Manufacturer-in Bond Scheme is expected to designate a warehouse or store in his factory premises for the storage of inputs and finished goods; and

(xvi) Import Duty Report (IDR), Clean Report of Findings (CRF), Form ‘M’ and other relevant documents for this scheme shall be clearly marked “MIB Scheme”.

(b) Duty Drawback Scheme:

Duty Drawback scheme provides for refunds of duties/sur-charges on raw materials including packing and packaging materials used for the manufacture of products upon effective exportation of the final products. The new Duty Drawback scheme shall give automatic refunds (60%) on initial screening by the Duty Drawback Committee and upon the presentation of bond from a recognized Bank, Insurance Company or other financial institution. The Bond will cover 60% of the refund to be made to the exporter and will only be discharged after final processing of the application has been made. At the end of the processing of exporters claims, the Duty Drawback Committee shall grant any balance where applicable or request for refunds for any over payment made.

(c) Duty Drawback Facilities:

The scheme provides for fixed drawback and individual drawback facilities. The fixed drawback facility is for those Exporters/Producers whose export products are listed in the fixed drawback schedule to be issued from time to time by the Committee. When the import content of the export produce is more or less constant, and import prizes (including exchange rate), tariff rates and technology used are relatively stable or “fixed”, it is possible to calculate a standard Input-Output Co-efficient Schedule (ICS) for these category of products on the basis of which a fixed drawback rate can be computed to be rebated per unit of export product.

Whereas the individual drawback is for producers/exporters who do not qualify under the fixed drawback facilities, it is therefore a straight forward traditional drawback mechanism under which duty is paid on all import inputs. The duties are subsequently, rebated on inputs used for export production. As general case the final export/producer can apply for the Scheme.

(d) Eligibility:

A trading Company which collects industrial products from one or more manufacturers as well as a trading Company which imports raw material inputs including packaging and packaging materials used for the production of goods exported by him could also apply for the scheme. Such a trading company must have entered into a contract with final producer of the product in such a way that Duty Drawback Committee can obtain necessary information and documents to enable the Committee act appropriately.

Applications must be companies incorporated in Nigeria.

(e) Time Limit:

Duty drawback application must be filled within a maximum of two years from the date of exportation. In order to qualify for the drawback payment (both individual and fixed drawback) exportation of the product which was produced with imported inputs must be completed within 18 months after the importation of the inputs.

(f) Application Procedure:

Application for either Fixed or individual Drawback Facilities should file the following documents to the Duty Drawback Committee.

(i) Completed new application form for Duty Drawback Rate/Refund obtained from the Duty Drawback Rate/Refund obtained from Duty Drawback Secretariat and all Zonal Offices of the Nigerian Export Promotion Council

(ii) Attach clear photocopies of the following documents in triplicates:

Import bill of entry for Home use (Customs and Excise Form C 188) for the respective raw material inputs used for the export production.

Import bill of landing for the raw material inputs used for the export production.

Letter of contract agreement between the Trading Company and producer in cases where the Trading Company is applying for the facility

Current registration certificate with NEPC

(iii) In addition to the above documents, all applications for refunds should be filed with the following in triplets:

Export Bill of Entry for Non-Domestic Goods (Customs and Excise Form sale 98)

Form NXP

(iv) Bank Bond to be issued by a recognized Bank or Insurance Company to the tune of 60 per cent upfront payment approved by the Committee as duty drawback refund and to guarantee the refund of any overpayment made to the exporter.

(g) Rules of Duty Drawback Application and Processing:

The following rules have to be observed to simplify the processing procedures:

(i) For the same export product defined in an export entry documents, all inputs used to produce a given export article should be treated as part of a single application and therefore cannot be divided into separate duty drawback applications.

If imported inputs, registered in a single import entry document are sub-divided and used for production of more than one export consignment, the import entry document should include information on the production of inputs and the balance remaining to be used.

(ii) Export Expansion Grant (EEG) Scheme

(a) Incentive rates:

The scheme will operate the “Weighted Eligibility Criteria” in assessing application for EEG. The baseline data as supplied by individual applicant company would be used in its assessment. Thus the method of assessment is company specific. A company’s EEG assessment would be conducted once yearly and the determined rate will apply throughout the year.

The weighted eligibility criteria have four bands: 30% 20%, 10%, and 5%. The following template will be used in assessing the incentive rate for every EEG applicant.

Determination of Export Performance – Eligibility Criteria

S/N Eligibility Criteria Company Data Threshold Weight Company Score

1 Local value added 25%

2 Local content 20%

3 Employment (Nigerians) 20%

4 Priority Sector 10%

5 Export Growth 20%

6 Capital Investment 5%

Total Weight 100%

A new entrant into the EEG scheme shall provide prior period financial statement or where applicable an investment plan for its assessment.

(c) Eligibility:

(i) Export must be registered with the Nigerian Export Promotion Council (NEPC).

(ii) Eligible exporter shall be a manufacturer producer or merchant of products of Nigeria origin for the export market (i.e. the products must be made in Nigeria).

(iii) An exporter must have a minimum annual export turnover of N5million and evidence of repatriation of proceeds of exports.

(iv) Exporter – company shall submit its baseline data which includes Audited Financial statement and information on operational capacity to NEPC.

(d) Validity for EEG Application

Qualifying export transaction must have the proceeds fully repatriated within 180 days, calculated from the date of export.

(iii) Export Development Fund Scheme

The Scheme provides financial assistance to private sector exporting companies to cover part of their initial expenses in respect of the following export promotion activities:

  1. a) Participation in training courses, symposia, seminars and workshops in all aspects of export promotion
  2. b) Advertising and publicity campaigns in foreign markets
  3. c) Export market research and studies
  4. d) Production design and consultancy
  5. e) Participation in trade missions, buyer-oriented activities, overseas trade fairs, exhibitions and sales promotion
  6. f) Cost of collecting trade information, and
  7. g) Backing up the development of export oriented industries.

(iv) Trade Liberalization Scheme (TLS) of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)

This is an export liberalization incentive that focuses on the ECOWAS sub-region. The Scheme is an incentive primarily geared towards export activities within the ECOWAS sub-region. The objective is to significantly expand the volume of intra-community trade in the sub-region via the removal of both tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in good originating from ECOWAS countries. This affords preferential access to the ECOWAS market from Nigeria.


The Oil and Gas Export Free Zone Act No. 8 of 1996 established an Oil and Gas Free Zone Authority to manage, control and co-ordinate all the activities within the zone. This zone encompasses three oil and gas service centers around the ports of Onne (near Port Harcourt), Calabar and Warri. All three ports have enhanced stacking and warehousing facilities awaiting subscribers. Incentives and fiscal measures approved by government that favour and encourage large investments in the region include:

No personal income tax

  • 100% repatriation of capital and profit
  • No pre-shipment inspection for goods imported into the free zone.


The Federal Government of Nigeria has passed an aggressive Free Zone Law which has created a business friendly environment benefiting from the following incentives:

Complete tax holiday for all Federal, State and Local Government taxes, rates, custom duties and levies;

One-stop approval for all permits, operating licenses and incorporation papers;

Duty-free, tax-free import of raw materials for goods destined for re-export;

Duty-free introduction of capital goods, consumer goods, components, machinery, equipment and furniture;

Permission to sell 100% of manufactured, assembled or imported goods into the domestic Nigerian Market;

When selling into the domestic market, the amount of import of import duty on goods manufactured in the free zones is calculated on the basis of the value of the raw materials or components used in assembly not the finished product;

100% foreign ownership of investments;

100% repatriation of capital, profits and dividends;

Waiver of all import and export licenses;

Waiver on all expatriate quotas for companies operating in the zones;

Prohibition of strikes and lockouts;

Rent-free land during the first 6 months of construction;


(i) Exemption from tax of companies profits in respect of goods exported from Nigeria provided the proceeds are repatriated to Nigeria and used exclusively for purchase of raw materials, plants equipment and spare parts

  1. ii) Exclusion from taxes the profits of companies whose supplies are exclusively from input to the manufacturing of products for exports.

iii) All new industrial undertakings including foreign companies and individual operating in an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) are allowed full tax holidays for three consecutive years.

  1. iv) As a means of encouraging industrial technology, companies and other organizations that engage in research and development activities for commercialization enjoy 20% investment tax credit on their qualifying expenditure.
  2. v) Dividends distributed by Unit in Nigeria are free of tax and no withholding tax is deducted there from since such incomes have already suffered tax in the first instance.
  3. vi) All companies engaged wholly in fabrication of tools, spare parts and simple machinery for local consumption and export are to enjoy 25% investment tax credit on their qualifying capital expenditure while any tax payer who purchases locally manufactured plants and machinery are similarly entitled to 15% investment tax credit on such fixed assets bought for use.



For the purpose of promoting identified strategic or major investment, the Commission shall, in consultation with appropriate Government agencies, negotiate specific incentive packages for the promotion of investment as the Commission may specify.


In the last few years, double taxation agreements have been entered into by Nigeria with a number of countries. These agreements are entered into with a view to affording relief from double taxation in relation to taxes imposed on profit taxable in Nigeria and any taxes of similar character imposed by the law of the country concerned.

The method of relief from double taxation under Nigeria’s tax treaties is by way of a “tax credit”. The mechanism of the tax credit is such that the tax payable in Nigeria on profits of a Nigeria Company being remitted into the country is reduced by the amount of “foreign tax” paid abroad. The converse is equally true where an overseas company receives profits from abroad. Nigeria has DTA with the following countries:

  • UK;
  • France;
  • Netherlands;
  • Belgium;
  • Pakistan;
  • Canada;
  • Czech Republic;
  • Philippines; and
  • Romania.

Negotiations are in progress at various stages with other countries like Turkey, Russia, India, and Korea.

Other countries have indicated their interest to commence negotiation of tax treaties with Nigeria. As a concession to Nigeria’s treaty partners, government has approved a lower treaty rate of 7.5 on dividends, interest, rent and royalties when paid to a bonafide beneficial owner of a treaty country.


As part of additional effort to foster foreign investors’ confidence in the Nigeria economy, Government continues to enter into bilateral investment promotion and protection agreements (IPPAs) with countries that do business with Nigeria. The IPPA helps to guarantee the safety of the investment of the contracting parties in the event of war, revolution, expropriation or nationalization. It also guarantees investors the transfer of interests, dividends, profits and other incomes as well as compensation for dispossession or loss. To this end, Nigeria has concluded and signed IPPAs with:

  • France;
  • United Kingdom;
  • Netherlands;
  • Romania;
  • Switzerland;
  • Spain;
  • South Africa; etc.

Negotiations with the United States of America, Belgium, Sweden and the Russian Federation are at various stages.


The government in repealing the Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Act of 1972 (Amended in 1977 and in 1989) and promulgating the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act of 1995 has liberalized the ownerships structure of business in Nigeria. The implication of this is that foreigners can now own 100% shares in any company as opposed to the earlier arrangement of 60%-40% in favour of Nigerians.


Under the provisions of the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring & Miscellaneous Provision Act No. 17 of 1995), foreign investors are free to repatriate their profits and dividends net of taxes through an authorized dealer in freely convertible currency.


The Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Act guarantees that no enterprise shall be nationalized or expropriated by any government in Nigeria.